Epics, User Stories, Sprints, Scrum, Chickens, Pigs, and Burndown Charts - Agile has a language all its own. How does Agile Marketing work anyway?
Marketing today can be incredibly challenging: how does the marketing team find time to drink from the daily social networking fire hose, create new marketing materials for semi-weekly product releases, write content for the lead nurturing machine, monitor and react to a mountain of marketing analytics, and still find time to think strategically? This is particularly difficult during times when marketing headcount is flat to declining.
While not a panacea, Agile Marketing does bring process to the marketing function in a way that can maximize the available resources, provide focus, and help marketers keep their sanity.
Agile begins with the Sprint Planning session. The objective of the session, which can last anywhere from an hour to half a day, is to get agreement on the goals of the sprint, the various projects that the team commits to for the sprint and initial assignment of responsibilities. During this time, it is important to involve the business owners, sales and perhaps development. The team must agree upon priorities, and the tasks that the marketing team commits to must fit within the capacity of the team. Over time, teams get very good at understanding their sustainable performance rate - how many "points", in Agile-speak, the team is capable of accomplishing in a given period. Trying to fit too many points into a given Sprint, with exhortations from managers of "you can do it", generally leads to cynicism and burn out. That's why, in Agile, it is the team members who commit, not the managers who make the commitment on behalf of the team.
The Sprint itself, which is generally 2-4 weeks long, is managed by a process called "Scrum". Scrum is at heart a project management method. It was developed to manage software development projects, but with just a few tweaks, marketers can use it to manage marketing projects.
One of the key elements of Scrum is the daily standup meeting. Generally no more than fifteen minutes in length, each person involved in the project reports out on three things:
- What they did yesterday
- What they will do today
- Any obstacles that stand in their way
In the Scrum meeting, there are Core roles, known as Pigs, and Ancilliary roles, known as chickens (after the story of the Chicken and the Pig). Normally, only Pigs speak at the daily standup meeting.
The three core roles are the voice of the customer (in small teams, this may be the same person as the product owner in Agile Development; in larger teams, it may be a separate person), the marketing team and the scrum master. The role of the scrum master is NOT to manage the marketing team, but to run the scrum process and eliminate obstacles on behalf of the team. The Scrum Master is also responsible for updating the Burn Down Chart, which is a publicly displayed chart of the work remaining in the Sprint, usually shown with two lines, one showing the ideal completion of tasks, the other showing actual completion.
At the end of every Sprint, two meetings take place. The first is the Sprint Review, the second is the Sprint Retrospective.
The Sprint Review Meeting is the bookend to the Sprint Planning Meeting. Again, the business owner(s), sales and development are invited. The team reviews the commitments made at the Sprint Planning meeting, demonstrates the work completed, and presents the results. The Sprint Review meeting may also identify uncompleted work or suggestions for new work that are added to the backlog for consideration at the next Sprint Planning meeting. The Sprint Review meeting is invaluable in making sure that the rest of the company is very aware of what marketing is doing and the results they're producing.
Unlike the Sprint Review meeting, which talks about what was accomplished during the Sprint, the Sprint Retrospective talks about how things went during the Sprint. Each participant answers two questions:
- What went well during the sprint?
- What could have been improved during the sprint?
Usually, only the marketing team and the Scrum Master attend the Sprint Retrospective.
The last concept that's important to understand in Agile Marketing is the concept of User Stories, and the related concepts, Epics and Themes.
A User Story is simply something that a user or buyer wants to accomplish. Developers typically write user stories as tasks, which translate into features and functions of the product. For marketing, user stories must be looked at in a slightly different light.
Marketers can look at user stories in two different ways: first, in helping customers get through the buying process, and second, making sure that the marketing team has a deep understanding of the tasks that the customer wants to accomplish.
For business to consumer products, consumers typically go through at least five different stages in the buying decision process (this can get even more complex in business-to-business transactions):
- Need recognition
- Information search
- Evaluation of alternatives
- Purchase decision
- Post-purchase behavior
One of the roles of marketing is to aid the buyer in getting through that buying process. To that end, marketing needs to produce materials that help at each step of the way. One way to document this is through user stories. Each target segment may have slightly different needs in the various stages, so User Stories are written at the "role" level. For example, if you were marketing a video camera like The Flip camera, you might write a user story as follows:
As a Soccer Mom (one of your target audiences), I need to evaluate alternative video cameras so that I can spontaneously take pictures at the soccer match and share them with friends and family.
The marketing team would satisfy that need by producing material (content marketing, advertising, sales brochures) that helped the buyer through that stage of the buying process.
User Stories can also be used to focus the marketing team on the customer’s viewpoint and benefits. To learn more about this, see my post on User Stories.
Epics are nothing more than big user stories, that typically require more than one Sprint to fulfill. Themes are bundles of User Stories with a (you guessed it) common theme. For example, you could group a series of user stories around the buying process for one of your target audiences.
Jim Ewel is author and owner of AgileMarketing.net. The goals of Agile Marketing are to increase the predictability, transparency, velocity and adaptability to change of the marketing function. It leads to marketing that is done in a rapid, iterative, experimental, don’t-be-afraid-to-fail fashion that complements and provides input to agile development.
This article is by Jim Ewel from agilemarketing.net.
About the Author
Logan is a digital marketing manager with experience in leveraging digital mediums to drive lead generation and e-commerce revenue. Currently he manages web strategy at Workfront, which means he spends his days focused on conversion rate optimization, A/B testing and SEO. Logan received his MBA from Brigham Young University, is passionate about his family, public speaking and reading great books like "How Will You Measure Your Life?" and "Ender's Game".Follow on Twitter More Content by Logan Mallory